Concours des écoliers, la veille de jour de St. Alexis.'
Vue de la même ville, prise de l'Église de Notre-Dame de la Gloire'
The Portuguese royal court fled Europe in 1808 for Brazil so as to avoid the advancing armies of Napoleon. In 1816 after Queen Maria I's death the Prince Regent became King João VI of Portugal, but he remained in exile, establishing an absolutist monarchy.
An independence movement gathered some momentum, despite scientific, literary, artistic and military successes generated under the King's patronage. An uprising was suppressed in 1817 but the desire for a republic continued.
The King returned to Portugal in 1821 and left his 22 year old Prince Regent son as ruler in Brazil. Dom Pedro I was to disobey the Portuguese parliament by establishing a government and appointed the renowned José Bonifácio as Prime Minister.
On September 7, 1822 an announcement was made declaring Brazil an independent nation and Dom Pedro was invested as Emperor in December of the same year. I'm doubtful whether there have been any other generally peaceful, royalty-initiated beginnings to a new nation state in history. (The empire was dissolved in 1889 in favour of a federated republic).
'Voyage Pittoresque et historique au Brésil, ou Séjour d'un artiste français au Brésil, depuis 1816 jusqu'en 1831 inclusivement, epoques de l'avènement et de l'abdication de S. M. D. Pedro 1er, fondateur de l'Empire brésilien. Dédié à l'Académie des Beaux-Arts de l'Institut de France. (published 1834-39)' is online in 13 thumbnail pages at NYPL. The artist responsible for the lithographs was Jean Baptiste Debret, who spent 15 years in Brazil.