Athanasius Kircher. He was moved to produce a sort of
pre-geological treatise, Mundus Subterraneus (1665), after having witnessed
the eruption of Mount Etna (2nd image) and visiting the dynamic
summits of both Etna and Vesuvius. The top image shows Kircher's
understanding of the origin of volcano eruptions.
Aeolian islands off Italy where he descended into the craters
of both Vulcano and Stromboli to collect specimens. His later laboratory
testing introduced an experimental dimension to vulcanological
studies. The engraving Stromboli comes from his multi-volume
Travels series, published 1792-1799.
gouache drawing of the Giant's Causeway in Northern
Ireland from 1740 was included in Volume 12 of Diderot's
famous Encyclopédie, published in 1765.
columnar basalt in Institutiones géologiques by
noted geologist, Scipione Breislak in 1818.
known to the outside world and used some engravings
made by Thomas Pennant when he published
Tour in Scotland, and Voyage to the Hebrides in 1772.
Pennant also wrote the section of text about the island's
hexagonally-jointed basalt formations.
Vulcan’s Forge and Fingal’s Cave - Volcanoes, Basalt, and the Discovery of Geological Time is a 70 webpage exhibition at the Linda Hall Library of Science Engineering and Technology which displays illustrations from rare texts published between 1565 and 1835.